bishop and architect.
In 757 Chrodegand, Bishop of Metz, reestablished the monasteria, clericorum, or communities of clergymen in the service of the cathedral churches. The cloister which he built about his cathedral at Metz, Lothringen, Germany, was the pattern from which buildings of this class were afterward constructed. This cloister, which probably retained many of its original features, was destroyed in 1754 by the Maréchal de Belle-Isle. Chrodegand rebuilt the cathedral of Metz and designed the abbey of Gorze.
Church of St. Stephen of the Hungarians, built in Rome near the Church of St. Peter of the Vatican about the end of the eighth century, under Adrian I. In this church may be perceived that dawn of amelioration which appeared at the time of Charlemagne. It resembles in arrangement the churches of St. John of the Porta Latina, of St. Michael in Sassia, of Sta. Cecilia at Rome, and more particularly the Church of the Apostles at Florence,--all churches erected about this period.