André Charles Boulle (Boule)
cabinet maker (menuisier), maker of inlaid work (ébéniste), and collector; b. 1642; d. 1732.
The earliest known Boulle was one Pierre, tourneur et menuisier du roi, who was lodged at the Galerie du Louvre in 1619. André Charles himself was the son of one Jean Boulle, marchand ébéniste, also established in the Galerie du, Louvre. André received a broad artistic education, and entered his father's business. May 20, 1672, he also was admitted to lodgings in the Louvre. (The privilege accorded to certain eminent artists of lodging in the palace of the Louvre at the expense of the king originated with letters patent of Henry IV, dated December 22, 1608.) The name of André Charles Boulle first appears in the royal accounts in 1669. After 1672 he was employed on important work at Versailles, of which records are found in the numerous inventories of the period. The designs for his work were frequently furnished by Jean Bérain, and sometimes by Charles Lebrun. Of his creations, the most celebrated at the time were the decoration and furniture of the superb apartments of the Grand Dauphin, son of Louis XIV, at Versailles, finished in 1683. These pieces were dispersed soon after, and have disappeared. He was assisted and succeeded by his four sons, Jean Philippe, Pierre Benoît, Charles André, and Charles Joseph.
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
architect; b. July 20, 1656; d. April 5, 1723.
Fischer von Erlach was a contemporary of Andrea Pozzo, and was educated in Rome. Returning to Vienna, he began the Schloss Schönbrunn, the construction of which was interrupted by the death of the Emperor Joseph I, and built the church of S. Carlo Borromeo (begun 1715), the Peterskirche, the palace of the Prince Eugen, now Finanzministerium (1703), the Trautson palace (1720-1730), the Hofbibliothek (1722- 1726), all in Vienna, the Kollegienkirche in Salzburg (1696-1707), the Kurfürsten Kapelle in the cathedral of Breslau, Germany (1722- 1727), the Clam-Gallus palace in Prague, Bohemia (1707-1712), and other buildings. He published Entwürfe historischer Baukunst (l vol., folio, 1725).
architect; b. April 16, 1646 (at Paris); d. May 11, 1708 (at Marly).
Jules Hanlouin was the son of Raphael Hardouin, peintre ordinaire du roi and Marie Gauthier, a niece of François Mansart. He added his grand-uncle's name to his own and was known as Hardouin-Mansart, frequently signing himself Mansart. He studied architecture with Francois Mansart and Libéral Bruant. While assisting Bruant in the construction of the Hôtel de Vendôme, Paris, he was presented to the king, Louis XIV, who requested him in 1672 to design the chateau of Clagny for Madame de Montespan. In 1674 he was commissioned to enlarge the new chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (finished under Henri IV; but destroyed in 1776). October 22, 1675, Hardouin-Mansart was appointed architecte du roi and later contrôleur général des bâtiments du roi. In 1675 he was admitted to the Académie de l'Architecture. His name appears for the first time in the accounts of the palace of Versailles, February 26, 1677. He was occupied with that building during the remainder of his life. At this palace he built between 1679 and 1681 the great southern wing. He finished in 1684 the Grande Galerie, overlooking the park in the central pavilion, and the garden façade of the central pavilion. Between 1684 and 1688 he built the great northern wing, thus completing the entire length of 580 metres. He built the grand stairway, and in 1698 began the beautiful Orangerie. The chapel of the château was begun in 1696, but was not finished until 1710 (after Mansart's death) by Robert de Cotte. In 1683 he commenced the château of Marly. In 1685 he approved the plans of François Romain for the Pont Royal (see Gabriel, Jacques, II). In 1686, he was appointed premier architecte du roi, and in the following year sold the office of contrôleur général des bâtiments du roi to his grand-nephew, Jacques Jules Gabriel. In 1688 Mansart built the two wings of the Grand Trianon in the Park at Versailles, which were afterward connected with a colonnade by Robert de Cotte. He continued the work of Libéral Bruant at the Hôtel des Invalides, building the portal of the church in 1693. He designed the dome, which was well under way when he died, but was not finished until 1735. Mansart was assisted in his work by Robert de Cotte, who succeeded him as premier architecte in 1708, by Charles Daviler, and by Cailleteau called L'Assurance (see Cailleteau).