Last night I found a free copy of Tacitus' Annals on the Internet. I was able to copy the text and use it in word. Now that it is in Word, I can use this find to search for certain words like "circus" and "garden," and proper names as well. I have already found quotes relating to the Vatican stadium, the Horti Luciliani, and the Stagnum Agrippa. I will use all of these quotes in tandum with calling out the plans for accuracy.
notes from the Pictorial Dictionary
Earnest Nash, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome (New York: Fredrick A. Praeger, 1961).
1. Temple of Apollo, just north of the Theater of Marcellus, 433-31 B.C., 3 columns reconstructed in 1940.
2. Aqua Virgo is the aquaduct that emerges from the slope of the Pinican Hill, crosses the Via Lati, and continued toward the Baths of Agrippa.
3. Ara Ditis Patris et Proserpinae, see Lanciani FUR.
4. Ara Pacis Augustae, not yet found on the Ichnographia.
5. Arco di Portogallo, on the Corso, removed in 1662 by Pope Alexander VII, not attributed and not in the Ichnographia, should be near the Meridian.
6. Arcus Claudii, held up the Aqua Virgo, moved from the aquaduct in the Ichnographia.
7. Arcus AD Isis, not in the Ichnographia, however in the Forma Urbis and it led to the Temple of Egyptian gods, and there is such a small temple in the Ichnographia next to the Porticus Septajulia and next to the Diribitorium.
8. Arcus Novus, Piranesi interchanges this with thew Arcus Claudii.
9. Area Sacra del Largo Argintina, in the Campo Marzio, not in the Ichnographia, unearthed 1926-29.
10. Basilica Neptum, was between the Pantheon and the Porticus Septajulia, Piranesi moves it to the other side of the Corso, it was badly injured in the fire under Titus in 80 AD, it was restored by Hadrian probably in conjunction with the reconstruction of the Pantheon, there is an existing drawing by Palladio and a fantasy reconstruction by Lanciani.
11. Bellona Templum, near the Circus Flamina, is found in the Ichnographia.
12. Circus Flaminium, see copy from the dictionary, it is misorientated in the Ichnographia, and judging from the Forma Urbis fragment, it is not obvious as to its orientation vis a vis the Theater Marcellus.
13. Circus Gia et Neronis, the Vatican Circus, "A funeray inscription in the necropolis under St. Peter's states that the tomb was IN VATICANO AD CIRCUM and proves that the Circus lay close to the necropolis," p. 234.
14. Claudius Divus Templum, see PD text, Forma Urbis shows good Piranesi inspiration.
15.Columna Antonini Pii, in the Ichnographia correctly.
16. Columna Marci Aurelii Antonini, use Plattner's text, in the Ichnographia correctly.
17. "Crypta Balbi," an interesting story here, there is a drawing of the Crypta Balbi by Peruzzi in the Uffizi that Piranesi copied to draw the Porticus Philippi which is in front of the Theater Balbi, and in turn Piranesi labels a long plan to the side of the theater as the Crypta Balbi.
18. Divorium Templum, was discovered from the Forma Urbis in 1903 (Plattner), it is not in the Ichnographia.
19. Forum Holitorium, see Plattner.
20. Hadrianium, there is confusion here, if the dictionary is correct, then it is what Piranesi labels as the temple to Antonini, and Plattner the temple in the piazza next to the dictionary location, and Lanciani seems to totally confuse the issue further.
21. Hercules Musarium, is in the Ichnographia, the Forma Urbis fragment could be Piranesi's inspiration for the Porticus Neroniani.
22. Horra Galbae, this is not in the Campo Marzio, but the Forma Urbis fragment is exactly the plan of Piranesi's Septa Julia. Could this be a case of mistaken identity or of cribbed informatiom?
23. Horti Acilioium, Piranesi ignores this garden and instead elaborates the Horti Luciliani and the Bustum C. Augusti, image from Il Campo Marzio.
24. Horti Sallustiani, the obelisk is in the Ichnographia, I also just noticed the line of the Aurelian Wall dotted in the Ichnographia, also just noticed another cochlearum in the Ichnographia's Horti Salustiani.
25. Templum Ianus (Janus), this is in the Ichnographia, starting point of the Triumphal Way, Piranesi depicts the temple as a combination temple/quadriform.
26. Insula Tiberini.
27. Iseum et Serapeaum, in the Forma Urbis, depicted differently in the Ichnographia, the round Minerva Temple in the Forma Urbis is also in the Ichnographia.
28. Temple Matidia, there is a Basilica Matitia in the Ichnographia which is also around the front of the Pantheon.
29. Mausoleum Augusti, see the dict. text.
30. Mausoleum Hadriani, see the dict. text.
31. Meta Romuli, this is the pyramid that I see as part of the "reality" of the Bustum Hadriani (along with the Circus from the Nolli plan).
32. Minerva Chalcidica, found in the Ichnographia in the approximate correct position.
33. Muri Aureliani, shown as a dotted line in the Ichnographia, and the line is correctly placed.
34. Navalia, the docks are not shown in the Ichnographia, I could propose that Piranesi placed Natation along the river instead.
35. Templum Neptunus, not found in the Ichnographia, should be where the Horti P. Pompey Deim M. Antoni is.
36. Nymphaeum Hortorum Licinianorum, I see this building that inspired Piranesi in designing the Horti Luciliani.
37. Obeliscus August in Campo Marzio, found in the Ichnographia, and in the "proper" position.
38. Obeliscus Hortum Sallustianorum, found in the Ichnographia, but it is positioned in the polar opposite position. Is Piranesi playing some kind of weird mirror game? (because he seems to occassionally do the same type of inversion with other buildings/remains, e.g., the Templum Metidia and the Circus Flaminia)
39. Obeliscus Isei Campansis - di Dogali, Piranesi any obelisk in relation to the Temple of Isis/Sep., however he does depict many small obelisks in the Stagnum Agrippa which is precisely where many of the small obelisks were found. A number of the obelisks were excavated before Piranesi's time, therefore he probably knew of the source area.
40. Obelisci Mausolei Augusti, there are two obelisks on either side of Augustine's tomb in the Ichnographia, not in front of, however.
41. Obeliscus Mediceres, more from the Templum Isis.
42. Obeliscus Vaticanus, (story of the bouncing ball), the obelisk is not called out in the Ichnographia.
43. Pantheon, see dict. text.
44. Pons Aelius, depicted in the Ichnographia.
45. Pons Agrippae, there is only one bridge in the Ichnographia where there should be two. I can't make out the name that Piranesi gave to the bridge.
46. Pons Cestius, called Fabricius in the Ichnographia.
47. Pons Fabriuius, another example of the inversion "game" that Piranesi seems to occassionally play.
48. Pons Neronianus, should be where the scoop Natation is in the Ichnographia.
49. Porta Flaminia, not found in the Ichnographia, it is now the gate at the Piazza del Popolo.
50. Porta Pinciani, it is noted along the dotted line of the Aurelian Wall in the Ichnographia.
51. Porticus Aemlia, this is the Forma Urbis plan formation that Piranesi copies for his design of the Septa Julia.
52. Porticus Octaviae, placed correctly in the Ichnographia.
53. Saepta Julia et Diribitorium, see the dict. text.
54. Sepulcrum P. Aelii guttae Calpurniani, not yet found in the Ichnographia.
55. Sepulcrum A. Hirtii, yet to be found in the Ichnographia.
56. Stadium Domitiani, Piranesi gives this name to one of the twin circuses in the Bustum Hadriani instead of to its proper location, which is the current Piazza Navona.
57. Theatrum Balbi, image from the Forma Urbis.
58. Theatrum Marcelli, image from the Forma Urbis.
59. Theatrum Pompei, image from the Forma Urbis.
60. Thermae Agrippae, see the dict. text.
61. Thermae Neronianae, is depicted in the Ichnographia.
62. Ustrina Antoninorium, not depicted in the Ichnographia.
book outline redux
I am now thinking of combining section 1a with 1b, and section 1c with 1d, and section 1e with 1f anf 1g, and section 1h with 1i.
The story of my own incentive will be combined with the re-enactment theories of Collingwood. It makes sense because my initial incentive was to fathom the unfathomable, and this became possible because of CAD, and thus through CAD I began to redraw/re-enact Piranesi's process. The basic outline is of the first section in my initial introduction to the Campo Marzio, mixed with my fascination with geometry and architectural plans, my schooling to some extent, some intermitant exposure to Piranesi, learning CAD, getting my own CAD system, and ultimately my first drawing of the plans. At this point, I then have to jump 10 years to my first reading of Collingwood. This section will be called "fathoming the unfathomable."
Combining Piranesi's "re-enactment," his "redrawing" of history with the nature of his archeological "accuracy" also makes more sense than having the two sections separate. I will start with Vico's "philosophy" and this blends very well with the previous chapter's ending with Collingwood. And this will lead into the issue of archeological accuracy. I will give a brief account of how Piranesi seems to sometimes deliberately confuse the issue. And from here I can address the plan on a case by case basis. I will conclude with the authenticity vs. veracity issue, and also suggest that perhaps Piranesi altogether entered virgin territory. I like the notion of ending with the idea of a new virgin territory because it leads perfectly to the next section which focuses on "Piranesi's Imagination and the Fertility of Roman Architecture."
I will start the imagination/fertility section stating the case for the multivalance of Piranesi's imagination and how all aspects of his imagination are evident in the Campo Marzio. I will list the operational modes and then correlate them to his entire oeuvre, and then to the Campo Marzio specifically. I would like to follow up with a concise explanation of the "fertility" of Roman architecture. (I will have to do some quick reading to find some quotes pertaining to Roman architecture, that is if I find any.) I will follow this up with the Tafuri, Fasolo, and Wilton-Ely quotes. Finally, I will deliver my analysis of the hierarchy of the plans.
Staying with this section a bit more, I can call in Eisenman's comments about Piranesi from the Charlie Rose Show, and I should re-read Wilton-Ely's chapter "Fever of the Imagination." I have lots of material and I also have most of the drawings that I need to do for the analysis. I just thought that I could also include the contiguous/generative element analysis to this section as well. I will first organize this section (and all the sections actually) through a web page. In fact, I will now reorganize the existing web pages and focus all the data into this new book outline.
I am now combining the former last two sections, and again this also makes sense. My notes so far on these sections are very sketchy, and most no longer even apply. The topics covered will center on the overall virtuality of Piranesi's work, which includes the type of spaces (environment) he designed as well as the way he depicted them (his "documentation"). This will lead to the Campo Marzio in the computer and how the new possibility of 3-D. I have experimented a little with generating aerial perspectives of the Campo Marzio plan, and this is just one example of representation ("documentation") that is now only available because of CAD technology. I would like to see this section end with an exploration of the Campo Marzio as a 3-D extrusion of the plan itself.
I just thought that I should start to create the whole Campo Marzio book via web pages. I want the book/web pages to be the repository of all the data I presently have, and I want to begin illustrating the pages as well. I am hoping to see the entire book evolve through the web pages, and, in a sense, this could be the experimental/personal document that I wanted to produce all along.
Fathoming the Unfathomable
fathom b : intellectual grasp, penetration, or profundity : COMPREHENSION
unfathomable : not capable of being fathomed a : INCOMPREHENSIBLE, INSCRUTIBLE [all that is cryptic and unfathomable in humanity --J.L.Lowes] b : IMMEASURABLE, IMPENETRABLE
intrigue 3 : the plot of a literary or dramatic work esp. marked by an intricacy of design or action or a complex interrelation of events
intriguing : engaging the interest to a marked degree :BEGUILING : FASCINATING
Piranesi's Ichnographia of the Campo Marzio is unquestionable a plan full of intrigue, and having been designed and drawn by a single individual only makes it more intriguing. Like the scored notes of a grand symphony, Piranesi's plan of many plans remains inscrutible to the casual observer who will likely recognize the drawing as a visual cacophony.
The definition of unfathomable reminds me of Bloomer's constant reference to [CRYPT] within her text. Perhaps I provide my own analysis of her "meaning."
"The other Enlightenment figure [besides Ledoux] who unquestionably had a lasting impact on Kahn was Piranesi. As Vincent Scully points out, Piranesi's map of Rome [the Ichnographiam of the Campo Marzio] was accorded a place of honor above Kahn's desk throughout the entirety of his mature career, and it seems that Piranesi was the essential catalyst which enabled Kahn to synthesize two otherwise irreconcilable aspects of his art: on the one hand, his constant preoccupation with the technical and tectonic authority of the constituent elements from which building had to be composed -- the ducts and piers of service and support; on the other, the capacity to combine and recombine the ruined fragments of a lost heroic past -- ruined both by time and by the delirium of the imagination -- and to posit these fragments, recomposed en miettes, as viable models for a disjunctive future."
Kenneth Frampton, "Louis Kahn and the French Connection," Oppositions 22, 1980.
Also check out the Kahn plans web page.