William of Wykeham
architect; b. 1324; d. September 27, 1404.
He was born at the village of Wykeham near Winchester (England), and was educated at the priory school at Winchester. He early became known to Bishop Edingdon of Winchester, who employed him on the cathedral and recommended him to the king. In 1349 he was apointed king's chaplain. On October 30, 1356, he was appointed surveyor of the works at Windsor Castle. July 10 he was made chief warden and surveyor of the royal castles of Windsorm Leeds, Dover, and Hadleigh. Wykeham made important additions to Windsor Castle. In 1361-1367 he built Queensborough Castle. He was made keeper of the Privy Seal and king's secratery in 1364. According to Froissart he had at this time attained such power "That by him everything was done, and without him they did nothing." October 17, 1367, he was made chancellor of the kingdom, and October 10 of the same year was consecrated Bishop of Winchester. March 5, 1380, he laid the foundations of New College, Oxford, and March 26, 1387, commensed S. Mary's College at Winchester. In 1394 he commensed alterations at Winchester cathedral. He began the reconstruction of the nave and aisles, which was not completed until after his death. In rebuilding the church Wykeham used the existing Norman masonry, transforming it into the perpendicular style of the time.