Histoire de l'art par les monuments...

025

Improved state of architecture in Italy under Charlemagne in the ninth, and the Pisans in the tenth and eleventh centuries


1. Longitudinal section of the Church of St. Peter in chains, Rome, as reconstructed on its original plan, by Adrian I; eighth century.

2. Plan of the same.

3. Side elevation of the Church of St. Vincent and Anastasius at the three fountains near Rome, outside the gate of St. Paul. According to Ciampini (Vetera Monimenta, vol.i, p. 72), this church was rebuilt by Pope Leo III, under the reign of Charlemagne in the eighth century. The fašade is given in its chronological order, pl. 64/16.

4. Longitudinal section of the Church of Sts. Vincent and Anastasius; the detail of one of the arches of the nave is given at pl. 65/15.

5. Plan of the same; the construction of the walls is given at pl. 71/21.

6. Longitudinal section of the Church of St. John a porta latina, at Rome, reconstructed by Adrian I in the eighth century; one of the columns of the nave is given at pl. 68/13.

7. General plan of the church.


NINTH CENTURY
8. Longitudinal section of the Church of the Apostles, Florence, built by order of Charlemagne in the ninth century.

9. Plan of the same; it resembles the Church of St. Michael in Saxia at Rome, engraved at no. 13. Vasari cites this church as an example of the momentary amelioration which Architecture received at that period; and he adds, that at the revival of Architecture the celebrated Brunelleschi studied its proportions (Vasari, Vite de' Pittori, etc., vol. i, p. 75.) On comparing the Church of the Apostles with the Churches of St. Laurence and of the Holy Ghost, built by Brunelleschi (engraved plates 47, 48), a strong analogy may be seen in both plan and elevation.

10. View of the interior of the Basilica in honour of the Virgin, built by Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapelle, 802, and consecrated by Pope Leo III in person. (Ciampini, Vetera Monimenta, vol. ii, c. xxii, p. 129.) The roof is ornamented with painting in mosaic.

11. Elevation of the basilica.

12. Plan of the same; in its octagonal form a resemblance may be traced to St. Vitali of Ravenna.

13. Plan of St. Michael in Saxia at Rome, built in the ninth century by Charlemagne; in form and arrangement it much resembles the Church of the Apostles at Florence.

14. Plan of the Church of St. Cecilia in Trastevere, at Rome, reconstructed in the ninth century, in 817, by Pope Pascal I. ...the painting in mosaic which ornaments the semi-dome of the apsis of this church.

15. One of the capitals of the nave of the Cathedral of Pola in Istria; ninth century: this capital was probably taken from some ancient building.

16. Another capital from the same nave, repeated in its chronological order, pl. 69/20, 21 and 22 of the same plate are also capitals taken from this church.

17. Transverse section of the Cathedral of Pola.

18. Longitudinal section of the same; the columns are antique, and the arches are peculiar in form, as may be seen at pl. 65/14. One of the columns is also given, pl. 68/17.

19. Plan of the same. An inscription, formerly over the principle door, and now on the right external wall of the church, gives the date of the construction of the church, 857.


ELEVENTH CENTURY
20. Plan of the Church of St. Miniato al monte near Florence, rebuilt at the commencement of the eleventh century, in the year 1013, by Bishop Hildebrand, and under the reign of the Emperor St. Henry.

21. Detail of one of the transparent marble slabs of the five large windows of the apsis of the church used in the place of glass. This marble is a kind of violet Breccia, the white parts only being perfectly transparent, the violet parts opaque. Targioni imagined it to be the phengites of Pliny. These slabs are in a single piece, ten feet high, two and a half feet wide, and several inches thick; they are fixed, not made to open. It appears that formerly the three small windows of the same were furnished with similar slabs, as also the two large arcades now walled up, which are seen between the three entrance doors of the fašade of the church, no. 28. The cathedral of the island of Torcello has also windows of this kind, one of which is shown at no. 30. This manner of lighting the sacred edifices, a great many examples of which still exist in the ancient churches of Tuscany, and in still greater numbers in the East, was probably initiated from the antique.

22. Profile of the entablature round the choir and apsis, above the arcades shown in section no. 27.

23. Longitudinal section of the Confession under the choir.

24. Base and capital from the interior of this church, and which may be seen pl. 69/30. Most of these capitals are unequal, and appear to be taken from more ancient buildings; some of them are antique, and amongst those of the choir is a very fine composite column.

25. Portions of the cornice round the upper part of the fašade, no. 28.

26. Plan of the subterranean church, or Confession, under the choirs of St. Minato: it is supported by a number of small columns which appear to be antique.

27. Transverse section of the church. The semi-dome of the apsis is adorned with paintings in mosaic.

28. Fašade of St. Miniato engraved on a larger scale, pl. 64/11. The decorations of the fašade, of the interior of the church, and above all of the apsis, very sensibly resemble the Church of the Apostles at Florence, nos. 8 and 9, and the baptistery of St. John of the same city, the fašade of which is engraved pl. 63/6.

29. Longitudinal section of the Cathedral of Torcello, on of the islands of the lagunes of Venice: it was rebuilt at the commencement of the ninth century by Orso, son of Doge Pietro Orseolo. One of the columns is engraved on a larger scale, pl. 68/16.

30. Detail of one of the windows of alabaster or transparent marble from the window of the Cathedral at Torcello, forming at the same time windows and shutters; windows of the same kind as those at St. Miniato, before described no. 21, whcih were fixed in consequence of their great size, whilst these, being smaller, have been mounted on hinges to open and shut.

31. Plan of the Cathedral of Torcello. The arrangement of this plan recalls those of the primitive churches: eighteen columns of Greek marble divided it into three naves, each terminated by an apsis, the center forming the presbytery, surrounded by semicircular rows of steps the seats for the priests; the pavement is in mosaic; the baptistery is situated in front of the principle entrance to the church, separated simply by a vestibule common to the two buildings.

32. Longitudinal section of the Cathedral of Pisa, erected in the eleventh century. Details at large of a base and capital from this cathedral may be seen at pl. 69/29; and a column, pl. 68/23; and a cupola, pl. 67/8.

33. Plan of the Cathedral of Pisa, work of Buschetto a Greek architect, in the disposition of which the first dawn of a revival of art in these countries is seen: the fašade is engraved pl. 64/10.

34. General view of the
Cathedral of Pisa, the leaning tower, and the baptistery, all works of the twelfth century. In the background is seen part of the Campo Santo, a workof the thirteenth century. The baptistery is given more at large pl. lxiii, no. 20. On the history of these works consult "Pisa Illustrata nelle arte del disegno, da Alexandro da Marrona patrizio Pisano in 8vo., 3 vols.; Pisa, 1787, 1792, 1793, e il compendio 1798."

35. Plan of the Church of St. Ciriaco, Cathedral of Ancona, built at the end of the tenth or commencement of the eleventh century. The plan, in form of a Greek cross, with a cupola in the center, offers an analogy with St. Sophia of Constantinople and St. Mark of Venice, engraved in the following plate.

36. Transverse section of the church across the transepts, and through the lower chapels on each side. The columns are of the stone of the county: drawn at large, pl. 68/21, and the bases and capitals, pl. 69/28.

37. Side elevation of the Church of St. Ciriaco.

38. Development of one of the pendentives of the cupola: this cupola is given pl. 67/10.

39. Detail of the roof.

40. Plan of the Church of St. Paul at Pistoia in Tuscany; eleventh century.


TWELFTH CENTURY
41. Plan of the Church of St. Andrea at Pistoia, twelfth century. ...a bas-relief taken from this church, representing the Adoration of the Magi.


GREEK CHURCHES
42. Plan of the Greek Church of St. Nicholas in the island of Samos, from Pococke's Description of the East; London, 1743, vol. ii, pl. lxi.

43. Plan of the Church of St. Mary of the five towers, at San Germano, at the foot of Mount Cassino; eight century.

44. Elevation of the apsis of St. Mary of the five towers.

45. Plan of the Church of St. Anne at Nicaea in Asia Minor, in the eighth century, at the epoch of the second council held in this city. (Pococke, ibid, vol. ii, pl. lx.)






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