César Daly
architect; b. 1811 (at Verdun, Meuse, France); d. January 11, 1894 (at Wissous, near Paris).
Daly's early education was obtained at the École Polytechnique at Douai, France. He afterwards entered the École des Beaux Arts, Paris, and the atelier of Jacques Félix Duban. With the encouragement of Duban and Labrouste he founded in 1839 the Revue générale de l'Architecture and continued the publication of that journal until 1890. His actual professional practice was mainly confined to the restoration of the cathedral of Alby (Tarn, France), of which he was appointed architect in 1843. The Semaine des Constructeurs was established in 1876 by César and his son Marcel. He spent three years in the United States, Mexico, and Central America, and in 1856 was the first to note several important pre-Columbian ruins. In 1869 he visited Palestine. Next to the Revue, Daly's most important publications were the Motifs historiques d'architecture et de sculpture d'ornement, 2 series in 4 vols, folio, 1870- 1880; L'Architecture privée au XIX siècle, 2 v. in 3 folio, 1870, 1872, 1877; Motifs divers de serrurerie, 2 v. in l folio, Paris, 1881-1882. In his eightieth year he planned and made preparations on a large scale for a new dictionary of architecture.

Jules Gailhabaud
archæologist and historian of architecture; b. August 29, 1810; d. April 15, 1888.
Gailhabaud was at first engaged in commerce, but after 1839 devoted himself to archæology. He formed an important collection of engravings, which was destroyed with the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, in May, 1871. Gailhabaud founded the Revue archéologique in 1844, and published Les Monuments anciens et modernes, Paris, 1840-1850, 4 vols. 4to, and L'Architecture du V au XVII siècle, 1850-1858, 4 vols. 4to.

Theophilus Hansen
architect; b. July 13, 1813 (at Copenhagen); d. February 17, 1890.
Hansen was educated at the academy of Copenhagen. In 1838 he visited Italy and Greece and practised for eight years in Athens, building at this time the observatory near that city. Reaching Vienna in 1846, he was associated with Ludwig Förster in conducting the Allegemeine Bauzeitung, and built the Watten Museum of the Arsenal and other buildings in a mediæval style. He again went to Athens in 1860-1861 to build the Academy, one of his most successful works. In the reconstruction of the city of Vienna (begun in 1857) Hansen built the Exchange (1869-1875), the Academy of Fine Arts (1874- 1876), and the Parliament House (1883).

Richard Upjohn
architect; b. January 22, 1802, in Shaftesbury, England; d. August 16, 1878.
He was apprenticed to a builder and cabinetmaker in 1829, came to the United States, and settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts. He went to Boston in 1833 and assisted in the construction of the city Court House. In 1839 he went to New York to take charge of the proposed alterations in the old Trinity Church. The scheme was abandoned, and Upjohn designed and constructed the present Trinity church, which was finished in 1846. He built also S. Thomas's church, Trinity Building, the Corn Exchange Bank, and other buildings in New York, and several churches in Brooklyn, and other buildings. He was president of the American Institute of Architects from 1857 to 1876.

Semper builds the Synagogue in Dresden (1838-1840).
Semper builds the Hoftheater in Dresden (1838-1841).
Semper builds the Villa Rosa in Dresden (1839).




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