William, F. S. A. Butterfieild
architect; b. September 7, 1814; d. February 23, 1900.
He devoted himself to the study of Gothic architecture, and was especially successful in the introduction of colour by the help of brick, stone, marble, and mosaic. The earliest of his more important works is the church of All Saints, Margaret Street, London, begun in 1849. He designed S. Augustine's College, Canterbury; all the buildings of Keble College, Oxford; the cathedral of Perth; Balliol College chapel, Oxford; S. Michael's Hospital, Axbridge; the school buildings at Winchester College; the chapel, quadrangle, and other buildings at Rugby School; Rugby parish church; S. Alban's, Holborn; S. Augustine's, Queen's Gate, and churches at Enfield, Winchester, Dover Castle, and Tottenham. All the work mentioned is in Great Britain. There are several important buildings by Butterfield in Australia.

Edward Falkener
architect and archaeologist; b. February, 1814; d. December 17, 1896.
He was a student of architecture at the Royal Academy, London, and in 1839 won its gold medal. He travelled extensively in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Greece, Crete, Italy, and Russia, and in 1849 excavated a house in Pompeii. Falkener was editor of the Museum of Classical Antiquities during the three years of its publication. He published a pamphlet on the ancient theatres in Crete (1854), Dædalos, or the Causes and Principles of the Excellence of Greek Sculpture (1860), a pamphlet on the Hypæthron of Greek temples, and other works.

Edward Augustus Freeman
historian and writer on architecture; b. August 2, 1823; d. March 16, 1892.
Professor Freeman, the historian, first became known as a writer on architecture through a book of travels in Dalmatia. This was followed by a History of Architecture (1849, 8vo), An Essay on the Development of Window Tracery in England (1850-1851, 8vo), Remarks on the Architecture of Llandaff Cathedral (1850, 8vo), History of the Cathedral Church of Wetts (1870, 8vo), Historical and Architectural Sketches, chiefly Italian (1876, 8vo), Cathedral Churches, Ely and Norwich (1883, folio).

Joseph Poerlaert
architect; b. 1816 (in Brussels); d. November 3, 1879.
In 1849 he won the competition for the monument of Belgian independence at Brussels. He restored the Grand Theatre at Brussels, and built the church of S. Catherine in Brussels and the royal church at Laeken (Belgium). In 1866 he began his most important work, the monumental Palais de Justice in Brussels, which was finished after his death, and inaugurated October 15, 1883.

John Ruskin
writer on Fine Arts; b. February 8, 1819; d. January 20, 1900, Brantwood, Coniston, Lancashire.
While engaged in the study of painting, especially landscape painting of early Italians and modern English, he studied also the mediæval architecture of Europe, and made many accurate drawings, engravings from some of which illustrate his published works. In 1849 was published The Seven Lamps of Architecture, a series of essays; and, in 1851-53, The Stones of Venice, one chapter of which, "The Nature of Gothic," has been reprinted separately. He published also lectures and detached essays.

Georg Gottlieb Ungewitter
architect; b. 1820; d. 1864.
In 1837 he entered the academy in Munich. In 1842 he settled in Hamburg, and afterward practiced in Lübeck and Leipzig. Ungewitter published Lehrbuch der Gothische Konstructionen (Leipzig, 1890-1892, 2 vols. 4to); Gothische Stadt und Landhaüser (Berlin, 1889-1890); Gothische Holzarchitecktur (Berlin, 1889-1890, folio).

Semper left Dresden during the political disturbances of 1848-1849and settled in London, where he supported himself as a designer for metal work and decoration, and wrote some of his smaller essays on art and architecture.




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