Histoire de l'art par les monuments...


Table of the style of Civil Architecture during its decline compared with that which it took at its restoration

1. Plan and elevation of the Tower de' Conti at Rome in the thirteenth centnry, by Marchionne d'Arezzo, several of whose works are cited by Vasari in his life of Arnolfo di Lapo.

2-3. Plan and elevation of the Fountain Branda at Sienna, erected in 1193.

4. Façade of a private house at Bolsene near Montefiascone, between Rome and Florence, erected in 1299.

5. Plan and elevation of an isolated fire-place, seen at Bologna.

6. Porta Romana at Sienna, built in 1391.

7. Façade of a private house at Assisi; on the right is a small door, some few feet above the ground, which was called the Gate of Death, because, according to an ancient custom, it was only opened to allow of the bodies of those who had died in the house passing out. Young married couples also entered the houses by these doors, when they were told that it would only open again for them when they should at the same time leave the house and the world. Similar doors were used by the ancients, and called by them Sandapilariae. In the ancient circus there was a door at the side called Libitinaria, because it was used for the carrying away of the bodies of those who died in the games; and in the old Church of St Peter of the Vatican there was a door called the Porta del Giudizio, through which were carried the dead bodies of those who were interred within the church.

8. Town Hall at Gubbio in the Roman territory; thirteenth century.

9. Plan and section of a bath outside the city of Bologna; the period of the erection of this building is uncertain.

10. Plan and view of the house where Petrarch retired and died in 1374, at Arqua, between Monselicè and Padua.

11. Plan and section of the Hospital of Fabriano in the environs of Ancona; fifteenth century.

12. Plan and view of a bridge in the same town, built in the fifteenth century by Bernard Rossellini, a Florentine architect.

13. Back front of the Palace de' Governatori at Ancona, built by Margaritone d'Arezzo in 1270, alla maniera Greca.

14. Entrance façade in the library of Cesene, founded in 1462, by Malatesta Novelle, brother of Sigismond Malatesta, lord of Rimini.

15-16. Transverse section, plan, and longitudinal section of the above.

17. Plan and façade of a house at Tivoli, on which are the arms of the house of Colonna, built in 1475.

18. Plan and elevation of a small chapel called St. John in Oleo, near the Porta Latina, erected in 1509.

19. Plan of façade of the house of Ariosto at Ferrara; above the entrance door is the following:--
and on the frieze separating the ground from the first floor:--
and above the center window of the first floor:--

20. Plan of the ducal Palace of Urbino, by Francesco de' Georgio, architect of Sienna, here in 1423, died 1470.

21. Castle of Cafaggiuolo, belonging to the grand dukes of Tuscany, at a short distance from Florence, built for Cosmo de Medicis by Michelozzo Michelozzi.

22. Pleasure house of the grand dukes of Tuscany, about ten miles from Florence, erected for Laurence the Magnificent, from the design of Julian Giamberti, called Sangallo, a name which he derived for having constructed a monastery near Florence and outside the gate Sangallo. This artist, born in 1443 and who died in 1517, deeply studied the antique; and the knowledge he thus acquired he communicated to his nephew Antonio Sangallo, who also owed to him in great part the celebrity he afterwards enjoyed. He applied himself more particularly to the construction of fortifications, for which he was employed at Milan, at Naples, in Tuscany, and in the Papal States by order of Julius II.

23. Façade of the Palace Strozzi at Florence, commenced from the designs of Benedetto de Maiano, brother of Giuliano de Maiano, and terminated by Cronaca, who designed the cornice.

24. Plan of the Church of St. Peter of the Vatican, as designed by the friar Giocondo de Verona when he was nominated architect to this church with Raphael and Julian Sangallo, after the death of Bramante in 1514.

25. Plan and elevation of the Villa Madama at Rome. From Vasari we learn that shortly after the death of Raphael in 1520, Cardinal Julio de Medicis engaged Julio Romano to construct this villa. The works were undertaken with great expedition, but were suspended in 1521 by the death of Leo X. Vasari adds, that after the death of Adrian VI, who succeeded Leo X, Julio de Medicis having been raised to the Papal chair in 1523, under the title of Clement VII, Julio Romano immediately recommenced the works in the Hall of Constantine at the Vatican; but he is silent on the subject of the Villa Madama, from which it may be concluded that the works were not then continued. Shortly after, in 1524, Julio Romano retired to Mantua; and in 1527 came the sacking of Rome, events which prevented the continuation of the works and caused them to remain in the incomplete state in which we now see them. The name Madama was given to this house because it belonged to Madame Margaret of Austria, natural daughter of Charles V, married at first to Alexander de Medicis, nephew of Clement VII, and afterwards to Octavio Farnese, duke of Parma. This villa has since become the property of the sovereigns of Naples, the inheritors of the House of Farnese.

26. Plan and façade of the Palace Stoppani, formerly Caffarelli, in Rome, near the Church of St. Andrea della Valle, commenced from the designs of Raphael; the upper story or attic appears to have been added after, as it does not appear in an ancient engraving of this façade published by Lafreri in 1549. Charles V resided in this palace during his sojourn in Rome.

27. Plan and elevation of the Palace of the Te, near Mantua, built in 1525 for Frederick de Gonzague first duke of Mantua; designed by Julio Romano, who was here architect, painter, and decorator. It is considered his greatest work, and unites to the imposing aspect of the exterior the most rich and elegant interior decoration.

28. Plan of a casino, built at Padua, near the Church del Santo, by Falconetto de Verona for the celebrated Louis Cornaro, surnamed Vita Sobria in consequence of the austerity of his principles and the sobriety of his life. An inscription over one of the arcades of the court gives the date
Falconetto, painter and architect, was the first to introduce in the Venetian states the taste for antique architecture, and paved the way for the celebrated Palladio.

29. Façade of the Palace Canossa at Verona, built in 1530 for Louis Canossa, bishop of Baieux in France, and ambassador of Francis I to the Venetian republic. It is one of the finest works of Michael San Micheli of Verona, who excelled equally in civil architecture as he did in military architecture, of which he may be said to have been the creator. He died in 1559, aged 75 years.

30. Palace Cornaro at Venice, built by Jacques Tatti, called Sansovino, who was born in 1479, and died in 1570. In the arabesque character of this façade may be observed the taste which the Venetians had contracted in their continued communications with the East.

31. Principal façade of the Massimi Palace, called delle Colonne at Rome, built in 1532, according to Ferrerio, after the designs of Balthazar Peruzzi of Sienna, born in 1481, and died in 1536. He was at the same time painter, engineer, and architect.

32. Palace Sachetti, Rome, constructed for his own habitation by Antonio Sangallo the younger.

33. Plan of the ground floor of the Farnese Palace, one of the most imposing buildings of modern Rome, the work of Antonio Sangallo the younger, the nephew of Julian and Antonio Sangallo the elder. He greatly surpassed his masters, and by a number of remarkable works contributed to the perfectioning of an art which had become hereditary to his family.

34. Plan and elevation of the Villa di Papa Giulio III near Rome. This villa, commenced in 1550 by order of Giulio III, is the work of several artists. Vasari claims the invention and arrangement of the plan, which was revised and corrected by Michael Angelo. The subterranean fountain at the end of the court was executed under his direction and that of Ammanati, who afterwards erected the portico above it. The principal building, of which the façade is here given, is by Vignola. It is one of the first works in which he applied the principles he had derived from the study of the antique, and which he afterwards handed down to posterity in his treatise on the orders, and architect's manual.

35. Part of the plan of the building called Uffizi at Florence, with the façade next the Arno; erected from the designs of George Vasari d'Arezzo, born 1512, died in 1574. It is the principal architectural work of this artist, who, the friend and pupil of Michael Angelo, and protected by the Medicis, united to that art the practice of painting, and who further has penned and transmitted to posterity the name, life, and works of those who have professed the arts from the time of their revival to his own time.

36. Plan and elevation of the Palace of the Counts Chiericati at Vicenza, by Andrew Palladio, born in 1518, died in 1580. It is considered one of the most perfect of the many buildings with which Palladio embellished Vicenza.

37. Façade of a small house at Vicenza, said to have been inhabited by Palladio.




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