Charles Bulfinch
architect; b. August 8, 1763 (at Boston, Massachusetts); d. April 15, 1844.
The earliest native architect of Boston. Bulfinch graduated at Harvard College in 1781, and between 1785 and 1787 travelled in Europe. He visited Paris while Thomas Jefferson was minister to France, and spent three or four months in Italy. After his return his first work was the Doric column erected to take the place of the old wooden beacon on Beacon Hill (Boston). In 1796 he undertook the Franklin Place improvement in which his entire fortune was lost. July 4, 1795, Bulfinch laid the corner stone of the State House in Boston (finished 1798). He finished the McLean Hospital, Somerville, in 1818, and in the same year received the commission for the General Hospital in Boston. January 8, 1818, Bulfinch succeeded B. H. Latrobe as architect of the Capitol in Washington. He built the rotunda according to Latrobe's plans, and added, from his own designs, the portico and approaches on the western side. He finished the Capitol in 1830. (For changes after 1851, see Walter, Thomas U.)

Jean Nicolas Louis Durand
architect; b. September 18, 1760; d. December 31, 1834.
At the age of sixteen, Durand entered the atelier of Etienne Louis Boullée, and in 1780 won the second Grand Prix d'Architecture. In 1795 he was made professor of architecture in the newly organized École Polytechnique (Paris), and retained that position for thirty-nine years. He published Recueil et parallèle des édifices . . . anciens et modernes (92 pls. folio, Paris, 1800); Précis des leçons d'architecture données à l'École Polytechnique (1 vols. 4to, Paris, 1802-1805); Partie graphique des cours d'architecture faits à l'École Polytechnique (vol. 4to, Paris, 1821).

Joseph M. Gandy
architect; b. 1771; d. December, 1843.
A brother of John Peter Gandy-Deering. He was a pupil of James Wyatt. In 1794 he went to Rome and in 1795 won the Pope's first-class medal in architecture. He was employed by Sir John Soane and assisted John Britton in his architectural publications. His brother, Michael Gandy, published Architectural Illustrations of Windsor with text by John Britton (folio, 1842).
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Joseph Halfpenny
draughtsman and engraver; b. October 9, 1748; d. July 11, 1811.
He was clerk of the works to John Carr during his restoration of the cathedral of York, England. Halfpenny published Gothic Ornaments in the Cathedral Church of York, (1795-1800), Fragmenta Vetusta, or the Remains of Ancient Buildings in York, (1807), and other works.



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